...Fields of Flowers and Forests of Firs...

A HISTORY OF THE WOODLAND COMMUNITY
1850 ~ 1958
1999
REVISED EDITION BY JUDY CARD

PAGE ONE

 

April 1998

Preface to the Preface

This a revised addition of the 1958 History of the Woodland Community....it has been four years in the reprinting. Much of that time was spend entering the data as closely as possible to the original and waiting for technology to reach the place where I could self publish.

I have worked on my genealogy for almost forty years and have greatly appreciated the community historians in the locations of my families heritage and when I had the opportunity to reproduce this volume, I seized the opportunity.

Moving to Woodland over 21 years ago, I have had the opportunity to meet and call friends, many of the individuals contributing to and typing the original manuscript. Some longtime community members have requested an opportunity to add updated information but at this time I chose to "simply" reproduce the original manuscript, with minor editing of spelling, punctuation and sentence structure.

I would like to thank my daughter, Christine Card Dean, Doug, Gusti and Heather Williams and Mable Knight for proofreading my data entry, it is often difficult to find ones own errors.

I would like to dedicate this to the original committee members, narrators and typists. Thank you all for your dedication.

Historically,

Judy Card
PO Box 1861
Woodland WA 98674

 

PREFACE

The lessons of history have not all occurred in the distant past, and, more often than not, what happened only yesterday may give us all a deeper insight into the past which made it possible. The battle of the small town is always against the comforts and smugness of provincialism. It was so when the original settlers saw the need to ply the waters with their boats for supplies and for word from the outside world. It was still true many years later when the first phone was installed, and later still, when bridges, highways, television and dams made their first appearance. Physically, culturally and psychologically the battle of the minds of free men is a battle against provincialism. Woodland is still waging that battle.

This history report pays a tribute to the old times, the "old timers" who made a bright pageant of this beautiful valley and lofty height, and to the institutions which remain today a permanent record of their noblest thoughts.

It has been the blessing of those who worked on this history committee to note another and highly dramatic stage of the battle - the phase known as "tolerance". We do not mean the condescending tolerance which put up with human beings because they are, after all, God's children too. We mean a kind of tolerance for new ideas, new people, new leadership, and the general acceptance of new friends on the same basis that we love and understand our older and dearer ones. It has been a revelation to observe the workers on this report who have cheerfully spent their evenings after a day's work and their week ends after a week's work to get this report ready for the community to enjoy - people who are comparatively new to the town of Woodland were there in great numbers - people whose names and families are now here referred to in the report.

Woodland areas have gained much from the influx of new people, both young and old, and the character of the churches and schools has changed with the coming of new ministers and new teachers. We have been fortunate that the slow trickle of incoming families has permitted us to made much of their talents and their goodwill; but it is still a battle, and rightfully so, to join the old and the new in the true spirit of progress. It rages on around us presenting a particular challenge, and a hope that Woodland people are more than the sum of the individual citizens - that they are also and moreover a spirit of progress to which this report is an abiding tribute.

As to the general organization of the report, a glance at the table of contents will disclose, to the most casual reader, material arbitrarily arranged and listed.

In some cases, a more or less, chronological treatment of a topic touches incidentally upon other topics treated elsewhere. It has been the policy of this committee, in such cases, to avoid breading up the continuity of a report in order to classify the details of it. Last minute editing, it is hoped, will provide sufficient cross-reference to tie in casual references with general topics. another reason for not breaking up stories as submitted is that, in so done, one may not only lose thereby the intended burden of the thoughts, but also obscure the ultimate source of the material.

Insofar as it is possible the original spirit and intent of the contributors has been preserved, even where it appears to be in conflict with what the committee feels to be a true and scholarly appraisal of facts, or in conflict with what has been turned into the committee and elsewhere recorded. For this reason, wherever it is possible, the source of an article is made known.

It is assumed that the reader is mature in his desire to arrive at basic and primary sources - so we leave him to his own devices as regards the minutiae of actual details.

As to the purpose of the history report, it represents merely an attempt to present reference material in a usable form and as accurate as it was possible to do so in the time provided.

Does anyone doubt that a compendium of many historical statements, some of them not knowingly related to any other recorded historical statements, must of their very nature be subject to correction in the light of subsequently revealed and conflicting facts?

It is with a spirit of humility and hard work, therefore that the historian of Woodland's early settlers sets before the reader the following compilations of his best efforts. If he presumes to deduce a few general conclusions in the welter of particularity, bear with him as with all those who are not satisfied with the nearest recording of facts, but seek also to savor their meaning. Regard it, if you will, as an effort to understand the afternoon in the light of what has occurred in the morning, the better to spend the night and evening in preparation for the morrow--a discipline of order, sense and system. Herbert Spencer has explained it thus: "When a man's knowledge is not in order, the more of it he has, the greater will be his confusion." so it is and must ever be with the material of a report - in this case, the history report.

The history of Woodland families as related in the ensuing pages is limited more or less to the period falling between the arrival of the very first white settlers to approximately the end of the first World War. Aside from the national and international implications to be found in the early and the later history of all American communities, the general rules and definitions of recorded history apply as well in the Woodland area as elsewhere. Here, too, one may agree with Franklin D. Roosevelt when he wrote that the purpose of history is to "bring together the records of the past, and to house them in buildings** where they will be preserved for the use of men living in the future." He wrote, further, that "a people must believe in the past, and must believe in the future. It must, above all, believe in its own capacity so to learn from the past that it can gain in judgment for the creation of the future."

Indeed, as the result of works of the history committee, a scholar may look up family data available nowhere else in the world, he may check his accuracy, and he may locate colorful background for creative writing. In fact, one well known author, Stewart Holdbrook, advised the chairman not to "worry about literacy style" in the compilation of early history, but to be sure to get the facts into it." (Meaning undoubtedly that he would be grateful to have facts available to which he might effectively turn his own craftsmanship at his own convenience.)

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The history committee has learned that there are five steps the historian of primary source material can take, of which only the first three may be presented at this report. they are as follows: 1) The historian can live out and remember the life of the early settlers; 2) he can record what he lives out and remembers, or what he has been told; 3) he can interpret the historical fact in the light of the present; 4) he can translate the facts of the interpretations into his own and his communities living present; and 5) he can project into the future the lessons of the past to guide and inspire himself and others. Whether the reader of this report be teacher, historian, writer, or entrepreneur, he must bring to these pages his own scholarship, for it is not the purpose of this committee to establish a pattern for living or to predict the future. Our attempt has been merely to record the facts as they came to us, and to deduce from those facts only the simplest and most obvious general truths as we interpret them.

The specific duties of this committee have been to gather materials and to write a community history for the purpose of creating a better appreciation for the values of local history. Dr. Shinn of Vanderbilt U. says "The historian had better start by understanding his own historicity. That is he should realize how his own history makes him what he is, how he becomes himself in his acts, how events demand of him responsible decisions. The meaning of history for any human being then, lies always in the present." Accordingly the Committee is enjoined to outline past events that have created the community as we know it today.

The scope of the Study --- So, we begin with a statement as to the scope of the study in two dimensions, time and space. The study, perforce, begins in 1845 when Adolphus LeeLewis settled in the river bottom lands somewhat below the junction of the present Whalen and Pekin roads, to be joined shortly thereafter by his half brother, Fred Lee Lewis. Actually the study of the history of Woodland will never end as long as there are eyes to see and ears to hear and willing pens put to paper; but for all practical purposes this report ends with the presentation of this record to the final Town and Country Study Meeting held May 13, of 1958.

The area covered in this study included all land as represented in the map supplied by the Population Report.

The moving spirit behind this history is the indefatigable Curtis Gardner, who acted as chairman for the report. For twelve years he has been making a hobby of ferreting on and interpreting colorful facts about Woodland area pioneers.

When the community development study program was set in motion, Mr. Gardner made himself available together with his collection of facts, anecdotes, and impressions. Some people volunteered to help him; others through his persistence, made an effort to collect interesting data; still others, for personal reasons, were unwilling to contribute even what they could remember.

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A generous man by nature, Mr. Gardner has not looked for reward in his "labor of love", not for that most elusive human emotion - gratitude. It appears that he holds with another public-spirited man, Seneca, who stated: "It is another's fault if he be ungrateful, but it is mine if I do not give. To find one thankful man, I will oblige a great many that are not so."

We like to feel that our committee has learned from the example of the pioneers among us that history is not only lived, remembered, recorded, and interpreted, but it is ever being re-applied to living. "To know the truth we must become the truth; it must first be lived, and out of a luminous life must come luminous thinking." Curtis Gardner and his fellow pioneers have done "luminous living". May the lessons of their lives be applied and re-applied in an ever widening concentric circle of "luminous thinking."

(Signed) ELEANOR OLSON

May 7, 1958

History Committee members as listed below have been informed and otherwise assisted by a great number of people to whom the task of recording accessible facts was primarily a labor of love.

Curtis Gardner - Chairman, Hilda Tanner, Grace Hillis, Robin Runyan, Clifford Bozarth, Clayton Grindheim, Roland Mills, Hattie Gardner, Ragna Jones.

The Chairman of the History Committee, Curtis Gardner, was fortunate in enlisting the aid of Eleanor Olson as editor in charge of arranging the component parts of the Woodland History in proper sequence. The preface to the History and the introductions to the various historical documents contained in this volume are the result of much time, effort and thought by a person evidently well qualified to do the job. The thanks of all who read the History will in no small way measure be returned to Mrs. Olson for her part in bringing this volume to them with an interesting, readable format.

The above listed committee members here and now, individually and together, express grateful acknowledgments to the following people for their help in gathering information on family groups. In the case of omissions and errors, always, alas, too plentiful, the committee asks the indulgence of the reader --- "To err is human; to forgive, divine" ----

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Mrs. Barbara Caples Peoples, Mrs. Emmet Lane, Mrs. Ernest A. (Eva) Davidson Mrs. Bertha Woodward, Mrs. Maude Bishop, Mrs. May Butts, Mrs. Bertha Blahe, Mr. and Mrs. Gene Blue, Rose Specht, Mrs. Susie Beebe Powell, Lloyd Van Bebber, Mrs. Emma Tesch, Selder (Tom) Lishan, Mr. and Mrs. Carl Tangen, Maude Maxwell, Brain Bill Englert, Clara Fisher Powell, Mrs. Roy Sellers, Mr. and Mrs. Carl Landerholm, Mrs. James Harmon, Roy C. Davidson, Mr. and Mrs. Roy Hunter, Mrs. Bessie Wright, Perle Martin, Lena Hamblen, Albert and August Schmitz, Rose Gray, Mrs. Jessie Erdman, Elma Blum, Minnie Gordon, Merle Blum, Arthur and John Peterson, Mrs. J. J. Guild, Edith Ferguson, Alice Guild, Walter Day, Grace Davis, Harry & Alfred Fredricksen, Lydia Strickland, Armos Fields, Dora Scott Clawson, Mrs. Alice Schiewe, Gilbert Murk, Mr. and Mrs. Ed Griffith, Mrs. Lionel Livermore, Mrs. Will Schurman, Mrs. Harry Taylor, Mrs. Owen Bennett, John Taylor, Will Christensen, Mr. and Mrs. Will Forbes, Anna and Edna Griffith, Vida Youngstrom, Clara Jones, Ira Fields, Chrystal Schultz,
Helmi Kortes, Mark Powell, Ada Dufur, Mrs. Ed Wyman, Mrs Frank Burnham, Mr. and Mrs. Carlton Conrad, Martha Wodaege, Mr. and Mrs. Fred Stallcop, Mrs. Leo Hil,l Courtney Eaton, Daisy Button, Harry Andrews, Irene Bozarth, Mrs. Vander Lund, Mrs. Lulu Robinson, Joe Wills, Dr. John C. Brougher, Earl Bryant, Joe & Edith Majeski, Hilda Bridgefarmer, Mazie Insel, Theo F. Wall, Mrs. Jennie Cochran, Walter Hansen, Ray Schiewe, Alice Baker, Leta Rasmussen, John Wyman,
Earl Wills, Ralph Sigel.

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The Ariel Women's Club and to many others too numerous to mention to whom we owe our deepest gratitude.

Also are thanks to the typists of this report:

Eileen Smith, Betty Bottemiller, Joan Harshberger, Marie Smith, Dorothy Martin, Erma Bjur, Fran Sage.

Our special thanks to George Homburg for his faithful support in mimeographing this report.

All those who worked many hours assembling, mimeographing and checking this report have earned the committee's deepest gratitude.

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BUSINESSES

The business houses of Woodland seem to have grown at a steady pace characteristic of most of the United States during the early years. Bust and boom, as reported here in this area, follows the pattern of the country in general. What village or hamlet has not been effected in turn by population increase, remoteness from transportation facilities, presidential elections, productivity of the land, proximity of markets, epidemics, and the threat of hostile Indians? Business in Woodland reflected all these things, starting with the need for one settler to help another, and the need for each to be helped by the others. Barter must have played an important part in across-the-counter dealings as well as in the exchange of live stock, produce and labor which never left the farms.

In the following article, R. Mills captures the spirit of early Woodland business men who learned at first hand the examples and precepts of service for survival. With color, whimsy and humor he takes a measure of the early Woodland tradesman in a far cry from then to the era of the modern Chamber of Commerce, Kiwanis and Commercial Club Program.

Sections devoted to Post Office History also follow as recorded by local people. Although a government business, it is here included because it does not locally fall under the heading of municipal government which we deal with under a separate topic.

Telephones, which did not appear on record until after 1900, have been treated sketchily, with a story about early phone service which has evoked the comment that "It was often a long time between the ring and the answer", sometimes a matter of days before a simple message could be delivered. These are the things we are inclined to forget, and which, when recollected, can provide startling insights into the problems and forces which faced the early settlers and made them unite for strength.

BUSINESS IN WOODLAND, HISTORY OF

The first business in Woodland was contained in a small two-story building about 150' south of the present location of the Woodland Fire Department. Christopher Columbus Bozarth variously called C.C. or "Uncle Chris" Bozarth was the proud owner of this establishment. Mr. Bozarth's life history to the time of his business venture is a varied and exciting tale. Briefly, he left Iowa with his parents when 13 years old; mined gold in California, endured many hardships in youth. He served as county assessor in 1856 and also served as member of the territorial legislature.

"Uncle Chris" and his wife Rhoda lived upstairs above their small store on the west bank of the Lewis River. The rather round figure of C.C. Bozarth was often seen among the many Indians who occasionally visited his 25' x 40' general merchandise store to barter and talk with the genial storekeeper who spoke Chinook fluently. The goods were mostly food staples, general merchandise and dry goods. The U.S. post office, a branch office, was started there in April 1882.

The business of making money in those early days of Woodland had a variety of methods. A man by the name of Jim Copeland raised potatoes which were harvested by chinamen imported from Portland, Oregon.

Fred Lewis, Thomas Oliver, George Hawk, Lish Wright, Bill Miller and Mr. Kulpur raised hops for export to the Portland Weinhard breweries. The hops were dried and bleached with sulphur before shipment on sternwheeler boats that navigated the Lewis River in those days. The smell of the sulphur was, according to one account, "strong enough to make a whooper jawed outhouse straighten up and take notice".

The hops were picked by women and children during the month of September. No baby sitters in those days, so out into the fields went the youngest with the rest of the family. On hot days the mosquitoes and yellow jackets distracted mothers trying to earn a dollar, babies crying and children squalling; it was a bedlam of sound but the hops were picked. Maybe that's why so many women voted for prohibition in a later time. The hop pickers received about $1 per 200# of hops.

Many families busied themselves during the wild blackberry season picking this luscious fruit and selling it to "commission men" from Portland. The freshly picked fruit was brought into C.C. Bozarth's store in five-gallon kerosene cans and dumped into wooden tubs. The pickers received three cents a pound for the fruit of their labor.

In 1887 C.C. Bozarth built the large house which is now owned by Amos Buker and stands firm on its cut stone foundation next to the Administration building.

The dairy farmers made butter, hand churned, and sold it in 60# firkins or round tubs. Most of the commerce at that time was to ----from a boat landing at Pekin. Kalama as well as Portland was an important outlet for the produce of Woodland.

George Love engaged in the business of extracting pitch from trees which were plentiful in parts of Woodland. He barrelled the pitch and it is presumed it was used for ship caulking in Portland.

The early eighties in the Woodland area found most of the people busily engaged in the business of farming. Verdant forests of fir, pine and oak trees broken by broad fields of rich timothy grass was an inviting and beautiful sight to a newcomer. A variety of food fish spawned in the Lewis River. Sockeye, blueback, the mighty chinook and sprightly silver salmon were all easily netted in season. The eulachon or smelt runs were bank to bank and a solid two or three feet deep. Catfish and bass were plentiful in the natural sloughs of the rich bottomland. Ducks and geese made a welcome addition to the dinner table already laden with a variety of good foods the rich earth so easily provided. The tremendous resource of virgin timber surrounding Woodland and reaching in some directions unbroken for a hundred miles had as yet received scant attention from the early settlers. Hard working though these folks were, they occasionally took time out to have fun. When one visited a neighbor for a party the festivities usually lasted several days with time out only to do the necessary chores. Basket socials were a favorite then and many a young man's fancy was turned to the one and only of his life by way of deliciousness by the basketful.

While C.C. Bozarth's store is generally recognized as the first store in Woodland, most of the first businesses were located just north of Woodland at Kerns, a small community on the north bank of Lewis River and just recently annexed by the town which was named "Woodland" by C.C. Bozarth. The following is a list of some of those early entrepreneurs.

From 1882 to 1890 J.G. Allen Shoe Repair Shop operated near the present location of Mark Powell's house. From 1889 to 1895 J.G. Hunter also operated a shoe repair shop at Kerns. Several others continued the operation of this small business until 1914. The logical conclusion for discontinuing the shoe repair shop is not that people stopped wearing shoes, but by that time Woodland was the center of business.

The old Lewis general merchandise store of that time was located near the present site of the Tom Stratton house. Dol Lewis also operated a ferry landing at that location. Two small steamers, the Alarm and the Lucy Mason, ran daily to Portland. The round trip fare was 50 cents. For several years the U.S. Post Office was located in the Dol Lewis store. Later moved to C.C. Bozarth store on Davidson Avenue, Woodland.

From 1892 to 1895 the Schoonover restaurant was in operation in Kerns. From 1893 to 1896 the McDonald Saloon, patronized mostly by loggers and farmers, furnished much of the red-eye and beer for any one who would pay to be served. The Gilroy Blacksmith Shop and the E. Specht general merchandise store had a brief tenure of business from 1892 to 1894.

During the nineties a man named Bonner did a thriving business as a taxidermist at Kerns.

From 1894 to 1909 the Applegate Cannery seasonally employed twenty persons to can apples and pears grown in the Lewis River Valley.

During the nineties the shift to Woodland as the business center of the community was already apparent. In 1895 Gilroy moved his blacksmith shop to Woodland next to the present site of Meeker feed store. In 1900 W.L. Lawyer bought Gilroy's place of the iron horseshoe and continued for several years to shoe the horses and sharpen the plow shares of the ever increasing number of farmers in the Woodland area. Some of the farmers who specialized in raising potatoes--Wilke, Strong, Bozarth--raised potatoes that harvested 500 sacks to the acre which they sold for 25 to 50 cents per sack.

In 1894 a man called "Doc" established a drug store. Three years later he became enraged over some obscure matter, tore down his building, packed his herbs and left for LaCenter.

The first dentist, Doc Goodby, was in Woodland in 1893 but did not stay long. Whether he lacked ability to fill his job or just pulled out, no ones seems to know.

The first photographer, Mr. Jesse Meiser, left his print on the life of Woodland. He came in the late nineties and posed the people of Woodland for many years. His work has left a history in pictures which is scattered throughout many local family albums and trunks filled with keepsakes and memories.

Tom Stratton, a mild mannered, likeable fellow, became an apt pupil of Mr. Meiser and carried on his photography for years. Mr. Stratton also took a correspondence course in pharmacy and opened his own pill dispensary just after the turn of the century. Their places of business were on Goerig Avenue on the west side between Davidson Avenue and Bozarth street.

In 1890 the first hotel, located at Bozarth and Goerig Streets, was operated and named after Mr. Eaton. Hobb hotel, at the present site of the Grange building, started in 1907.

During this year the Northern Pacific Railroad put in the first grade. At a later time the so-called "short-line" ran from Kalama to Vancouver. the track was very crooked and the daily run of the train was not noted for punctuality.

In 1892 the first livery stable at the present site of the Meeker feed company was operated by Charley Fisher and then Bill Martin. As the business prospered there was a corresponding increase in odors, etc. Early accounts of the town's government indicated that the advent of the horseless carriage was welcomed with open arms. The automobile dropped an occasional nut or bolt, made a lot of noise but smelled nice enough "to create" a new building called a garage where it was kept when not in use.

In 1892, Mr. Steimetz operated a saloon at Second and Davidson. There were several other saloons that came into being in later years but the patrons all seem to have "passed out" of the picture. It is difficult to get an accurate date of names and places.

In 1895, the first barber shop at Second and Davidson was operated by John Englert. He is the uncle of Bill Englert who "tonsors" and shaves his customers at the same location today.

Not even the briefest account of early businesses in Woodland would be complete without some mention of cheesemaking. During the middle eighties Hans Kraft, whose name appears on many property tax statements today, made a brief attempt to start a cheese business. During 1887 Mr. Koch started operating Woodland's first cheese factory. The following is a detailed account of that industry.

CHEESEMAKING IN WOODLAND
by Donald McIntosh, son of Peter McIntosh

About 1887 a man by the name of Koch started operating Woodland's first cheese factory, and while little is known of his early operations it is certain the dairymen in the vicinity were glad to have a place to sell their milk. When cheese sold readily at a good price, everything progressed satisfactorily; but Mr. Koch, having no control over the cheese market, had to pay for the milk in accordance with what he could get for the cheese produced from it, therefore, if and when the cheese market was low, so was the price paid for the milk, (page break to keep in format of 1958 edition) and when the dairymen received their reduced checks they did not like it and blamed Mr. Koch for the reduction. All this would not have been so bad, had Mr. Koch been more frank and diplomatic in dealing with his patrons. People then, as now, liked to know what they might receive from what they had to sell; but when asked by the dairymen the reason for low prices and whether he thought they might be higher next time or at a later date, he would not go into explanations nor attempt to reason with them. Then too, in those days people liked to drop in and visit with the proprietor of any business enterprise; but by all reports Mr. Koch must have been an anti-social person for he usually only grunted when asked a question and kept right on working. It was also said to be a common thing for him to use strong language toward his patrons whenever they complained or tried to say much to him about the conditions. At last in desperation and for their own good, a group of these dairymen decided to form a co-operative cheese factory to better handle their own affairs and to divide the profits among themselves. At one time this writer had in his possession the book of Minutes of this group called "The Woodland Dairy Association" and can recall in part some of its contents. It would be interesting to have it now.

After this group had met several times a committee was named for the propose of calling on Mr. Koch with the idea of buying him out. The spokesman for the committee had barely broached the subject when Mr. Koch told him and his fellows what they could do and where they could go. Seeing it was useless to try to deal with him, it was decided at the next meeting to get someone else to come to Woodland and start a plant. A Mr. Burmingham was a prospect, as the association through its secretary carried on a correspondence with him concerning the matter, and he, Burmingham, was willing to start in Woodland but with certain stipulations that bound dairymen to ship their milk to him for a long time to come. This did not seem to be any better than they were doing, and offered no solution to their problem. At that time Peter McIntosh was operating a cheese factory at Freeport, Washington, near where West Kelso was at one time. In the above named Book of Minutes is a copy of a letter written to the Woodland group by him, explaining to them that if they wanted Mr. Burmingham to operate at Woodland it would be necessary for them to sign up to deliver their milk to the contemplated plant. Soon thereafter, the Woodland people decided to build their own cheese factory and finance it themselves, each producer to pay according to the number of cows he owned and issue stock prorate.

At the invitation of the Woodland Dairy Association, Peter McIntosh came to Woodland from Freeport and drew up the plans for their plant; the factory to be equipped to manufacture butter if need be, but primarily the article to be manufactured was cheddar cheese. Work started on the building in the fall of 1888 and it was planned to have the factory in operation by early spring of 1889. Before going on with this account of early day dairying it is fitting to mention the names of some of the men who helped start this enterprise. If some names are omitted it is not intentionally done, as all this happened long ago, 63 years to be exact. The names that came to mind are Messrs. Bratton, Goerig, Guild, Caples, Klady, Bozarth, Teal, Klager, Strong and LaRue. One of the early officers was Frank Klager who was secretary of the association for a number of years. He was a very fine penman as well as an excellent dairyman, and helped the association in many ways for years.

As contemplated, the new plant was in operation in the spring of 1889, with Peter McIntosh, who learned cheese making in Ontario, Canada, operating the factory and seeing to it that the cheese was sold to the best advantage of the dairymen. Soon after the new factory opened, Mr. Koch left Woodland to seek greener pastures, as there was no way he could make cheese without milk, and all available milk was being delivered to the new plant. The new factory and dairymen prospered in this way for a number of years; then one winter a Mr. Kaupfish, owner of the Vancouver, Washington Creamer, made a proposition to the Woodland Dairymen which they accepted. He agreed to install a separator in the Woodland plant and pay the dairymen the highest market price for butterfat, the members to receive the skim milk back, each one to receive his fair share back in proportion to the amount of the milk he had delivered. However, according to the minutes of the later meetings all this did not work out well in a financial way. So when Mr. Kaupfish made a similar offer the next year, the Association voted not to accept his offer. That year under Mr. Kaupfish was the only year that the Woodland factory did not make cheese in the forty years it was in operation. There were times in late fall and early spring when the milk supply was low that some butter was made in Woodland, but it was always made by the operator of the plant and sold for the benefit of the dairymen.

The year of the high water in 1894 was a bad year in and around Woodland. The unprecedented high flood of that year lasted six weeks and when at last the water did recede there was little or no feed for the cattle when they were driven home from high ground where they had been since the water covered the pastures on the bottom land. Little cheese was made at Woodland that year, and the income of the dairymen was very much depleted. Meanwhile, over on the Oregon coast in the town of Tillamook, a Mr. Townsend was working on the idea of a butter and cheese factory. He had been in correspondence with Peter McIntosh with the idea of forming a partnership in which Townsend would handle the butter end of the business and McIntosh the cheese making department. Since it was customary to close the Woodland factory for a least two months in the winter at that time (when most of the cows were dry and winter dairying was unknown) late in the fall of the year 1895, Mr. McIntosh left Woodland to go into partnership with Townsend in the new enterprise in Tillamook. This move was to make history for the people of Tillamook, unknown to them however for years to come.

Who the cheesemaker was that took charge of the Woodland factory in the spring of 1895 is not known, but by available information on the subject he did not do so well. There were many complaints by the buyers that the cheese was too soft in texture and had many other defects. Up to this time all cheese made at Woodland had been up to standard and had found ready sale on all markets. Now it moved very slowly and in fact hardly at all. When the year ended the factory was nearly full of unsold cheese and dairymen and directors were at their wits' end to know what to do. In their extremity they wrote to Mr. McIntosh at Tillamook to see if he could come back and help them out. This he was unable to do for the reason that he had bought out Mr. Townsend and was operating several factories in Tillamook County and had all he could attend to. However, he did tell them he would arrange to send them a buyer who would take their unsold cheese and pay for it according to the quality of it. The price was low that year even for good cheese, and Mr. Daniels who bought the Woodland supply that year of 1895 paid only five cents a pound for it. That was better than for it to spoil on the shelves, but even so that was a very poor year financially speaking for the members of the Woodland Dairy Association. This Mr. Daniels passed on only a few years ago, in his late eighties. This writer once asked him what he did with the cheese he bought in Woodland in the fall of 1895. He was always a smart operator and stated that he had sold it in Seattle at seven cents a pound before he paid for it himself. He of course had to pay the freight on it, but said he made a little money on the transaction. It is not known exactly how much cheese was involved in the deal, but fifty tons would be a fair estimate and it is very probable that he made $1,500 on the deal, which was a lot of money in 1895.

During their critical period in 1895 Mr. McIntosh had promised the Woodland Association that he would arrange for a cheesemaker to come from Ontario, Canada, to take over their factory the following spring. Accordingly, John Bogart, an expert Canadian cheesemaker, arrived at Woodland in the spring of 1896. At that time all cheese made in Ontario was of very high quality as by far the larger part of it was exported and had to be the best, to withstand long hauls on freight trains with no refrigeration and long ocean voyages. So with the coming of John Bogart, who was accustomed to making nothing but the highest grade cheese, business prospects of the Woodland factory as a No. 1 quality, and not long after his arrival, cheese made at Woodland was quoted on the market page of the Portland papers at from one to two cents over the market price for cheese of the same kind. That was long before cheese made at Tillamook commanded a premium price on the countries markets.

BUSINESS AFTER 1900

The diary farmers of Woodland during the early history of that area were hardworking people who still had time for the lighter side of life. Here is a true story about Frank Klager, dairyman, and a certain Halloween.

"The hour was midnight on October 31; the year was one of the late nineties. Frank Klager and another man met quietly by prearrangement and proceeded with the task before them. Everyone else on the farms surrounding Woodland had been long in bed and asleep. Mr. Klager and his partner for the evening proceeded to a farm which boasted a total of 40 dairy cows. They quietly moved the docile animals out of the barn and escorted them to a fenced-in area a mile away. Then Mr. Klager and friend duplicated this performance at another farm which had about the same number of cows. They took the cows from farm No. 2 and put them in barn No. 1. Then, took the cows from farm No. 1 to barn No. 2 and put them in the barn. This undertaking was completed just short of the time before farms 1 and 2 saw the usual 4:30 AM arising of the occupants. In those days each cow had a name and a farmer could name his entire herd without hesitation. When milking time started at 5 AM, farmers 1 and 2 were completely bewildered. The durn animals didn't look right, were balky and kept kicking over milk buckets and acting as if they were perfect strangers to the proper names and finally violent names addressed to them by farmers 1 and 2. According to one of the oldtimers, it took several days to get things straightened out. This was, perhaps, the largest and most successful of all Halloween pranks ever perpetrated in this area.

In 1905 Mrs. King opened a Ladies Apparel store next to the present site of Olson's Variety Store. Tom Chatterson opened a store at the present site of Walt Wood's hardware in which he first sold clothing then introduced hardware as his main stock in trade. Mr. Chatterson was a portly, pleasant man and one of the pillars of the First Presbyterian Church. He was, perhaps, the first undertaker of the town. Being a carpenter of sorts he built pine coffins and assisted in "Laying-out" the dead and spent many a lonely vigil at the side of someone's mortal remains. Tom Chatterson was noted for his banjo playing. During the long summer evenings he would strum his banjo on the veranda of his home and many an evening passerby stopped to listen and enjoy his music. Mr. Chatterson also had the dubious distinction of being a salmon egg fan. He would unroll a skein of salmon eggs, fry them in a black iron skillet and consume them with a relish not shared by any other person of that time.

In 1904 or 1905, P.A. Blue started a general merchandise store in the old bakery building which is still in use today. This business continued for many years finally being sold to A. B. Martin which later became Martin and Son. The business was by now in the present location of Mr. Godfrey's general merchandise store. Mr. Godfrey continues a half century of salesmanship and service at the same stand.

During 1906-08 Gilbert and Justice Murk operated a livery stable in a competent manner, then went into the logging business which by this time was becoming an important part of the economy.

From 1907 to 1912, L.G. McConnell opened the Woodland State Bank. No doubt a just and upright man he was judged by some to be tight as the bark on a tree. He was so careful of expenditures that he repaired his own shoes. His successor, L. N. Plamondon, quickly made friends and a large place for the bank in the community. He was the personification of dignity and without ostentation wore pearl gray spats and carried a cane or walking stick as a mark of sartorial elegance. Mr. Plamondon, or Lou, as he was called by his many friends, was an intellectual in the true sense of the word. Unfortunately, his generosity with loans and a belief in never-ending prosperity forced the bank to close its doors in the great depression of the thirties. L.N. Plamondon had many rare abilities. One was an ability to write two letters at the same time, one with each hand. The subject matter of these letters as not the same; a rare ambidexterity of both hand and mind. Both L.N. Plamondon and his brother, George Plamondon, served as mayors of Woodland.

In 1906 E.F. Bryant became the first registered druggist in Woodland and continues in that same business today. Mr. Bryant's name appears in many places in the history of Woodland. He and Dr. Hoffman have literally walked hand in hand down through the calendared pages of over half a century of service to the community.

Some nineteen thousand days of service for others is the kind of mathematics this world sorely needs today.

From 1902 to 1906 Ira Hutchings operated a store. In 1907 R.W. Mills and Mr. Knapp bought out Mr. Hutchings whose store was on the present site of the Security State Bank. Mr. Mills later bought out Mr. Knapp and continued in business for 30 years.

The Mills Grocery and General Merchandise store was a two-story building about 50' x 100' with a second story dance hall or opera house. Many travelling troupes of performers, medicine shows, etc. were presented there as well as dances. It was the first high school basketball floor.

One day a drummer who was talking to Mr. Mills in the store removed his newly acquired false teeth to explain the workmanship done on them. An Indian who had just stepped in and happened to see this "de-toothing" of the salesman let out a wild yell and leaped out of the front door without bothering to open the screen door which was thus ruined by his "scared-to-death" onslaught.

R.W. Mills could talk Chinook Indian and Indians enjoyed buying at his store. Occasionally, they purchased goods with gold nuggets. No one ever discovered this source of gold and the secret of its where-abouts has died with the last of the old-time Indians, Indian Louie.

Mr. Mills also, was one of the first to sell that new product, petrol or gasoline. One customer, old man Usher, had, perhaps the most ancient of horseless carriages of that time. It looked like a buggy with 2" diameter hard rubber tires, a tiny motor in the rear and a shiny steering bar about a foot long serving as the steering device. It was always worth stopping to watch this mechanized buggy come chugging and bumping down the street with old man Usher at the helm, his long white beard streaming over his shoulder.

In 1910, T.E. Oliver built the first of many buildings constructed by him in Woodland. This one, present site of Idle Hour tavern, was just across the street from Mills Store and the walls were poured concrete which was mixed by hand a cubic yard at a time. Mr. Oliver built the theater building, the administration building, the farmers' store building and others.

The City Meat Market building was in those days the Swartz Hotel. Mrs. Wirtz boarding house on First Avenue and Third Street was patronized by the bachelor business men of the area. Dr. Hoffman met the girl who was to be his life partner at this place. R.W. Mills was a patron while paying court to Lizzie Klager who lived a half mile distant. Many were the practical jokes played on these suitors. According to one account, Mr. Mills would carry a lantern in the evening to go a courting. Some wag painted the lantern a rather bright color much to the discomfiture of Mr. Mills.

The town was growing; civic pride and progress were in evidence. Davidson Avenue was paved and more buildings, more businesses came to Woodland. Phillip and Howarth, started a grocery store; then it was Howarth and Tathan. Tatham sold to Mr. Howarth. Much later Howarth & Son had a modern store in the theater building. The first store was in the Bell Building, the second in the Idle Hour location and the third as noted. Jack Howarth continued the business for several years after his father's death and then sold out.

In 1913 the Thompson ferry was in its last year of operation connecting traffic from east Woodland to Clark County and Hayes, up-river. This same year the farmers' store was built and until 1916 a hardware store by Lew Fields operated there.

In 1914 the bridge across the Lewis river was completed opening up the east bank of the Lewis River for easy access to Woodland by residents of that area. Also, in 1914, Lee Buskirk opened the first garage car repair shop in Woodland. This business was located just south of the present Alibi Cafe at Goerig and east CC Street (1993--Lewis River Motor).

In 1914, the Bower theater in the east side of the Lew Fields building, or farmer store building, was in operation. That same year Harry Andrews bought the theater and named it the Eagle. For many years this theater of 190 seats prospered. Walter Bryant played the appropriate music for the silent flickers and it was a source of rare entertainment to the people of Woodland. Later Harry Andrews moved the movies to the Eagles Hall building and continued there until 1930. Several others tried the movie business in Woodland. The most notable being Nat Rhoades who continues to show fine pictures at the Woodland Theater at Second and Bozarth.

During the early twenties vaudeville acts were a frequent additional attraction at the movies. One night a hypnotist cast his spell on several huskies of the Woodland football team. These bemused lads were caused to kiss a broom as if it were a lovely girl, to drink milk like a baby and perform other ludicrous antics much to the delight of the home audience. Chatauguas made infrequent tented visits to Woodland and afforded a superior type of entertainment.

In 1916, the farmers store, a cooperative enterprise, started in business. The building adjacent just east of this building was a frame structure housing Tom Hulett's pool hall and restaurant. Tom Hulett, a man of short stature and weighing 320 lbs. was a jolly fellow, a good cook, and kindly disposed to "down and outers" who stopped at his place of business. Mr. Ira Field later built the Merwin Hotel at this site and operates this business today. The Recreation tavern now operated by Mrs. Charles Tanner, has had a varied history. This building has housed a chain store, Black and White, has been used as a card room and tavern by several others. Shorty Mueller, who was prominent in veteran affairs for many years, first worked for Tom Hulett, eventually became owner of the Recreation tavern. Shorty was a man with a quick smile and a ready hand to help unfortunates who stopped at his place. Mr. Mueller was not a church man but he did many Christian deeds during his life in Woodland. During the early thirties a local dairyman, just married, had a charivari at Mueller's place of business. Shorty was instructed to keep track of the costs. Everything in the house was free to the revellers. The cost for cigars, refreshments, food, etc., was rumored to total $700 for this evening's celebration of the dairyman's nuptials. Some of the costs involved a torn pool table cloth, several broken chairs and a broken pool cue; some evening!

In 1917, Dale and Barr garage located just west of the Signal service station on East CC street started operation. During the twenties Bob Robbins built the highway Canteen. Mr. Marden built several buildings just east of the Canteen and started a Chrysler products garage which building is now the Mach truck agency, F.M. Neil proprietor. Also, 1917 saw the Interstate highway bridge across the Columbia at Vancouver linking Oregon and Washington via Highway 99. During the twenties, highway traffic steadily increased. Several people decided to capitalize on this fact and built small restaurants called a Spanish name, cafe. Arny's cafe, Flora's Cafe - Flora Lane, owner, the Cherry Tree operated by a sister of Flora's and her husband held forth here for many years. The Cherry Tree and Arny's cafe have disappeared by now. Roy Campbell and his wife operated the confectionery next to a barbershop, the former site of Flora's cafe. During those days of barbeque sandwiches, which later became hamburgers, Woodland was a favorite stopping point for the big trucks on the long haul between Portland and Seattle. Flora Lane, a rather large woman with a larger voice, was quick with a quip and really enjoyed meeting people. Many a young couple who had burgers here later married and still reside in the Woodland area.

There have been many restaurants in Woodland's history. One of the first, Mrs. Strong's. located in the building just east of the telephone office was serving hungry customers in the nineties. Hotels of those early days customarily served meals to their guests. Today the Rendezvous at Second and Bozarth, Pop's Place on east CC street, the Alibi on north Goerig and the Mary-Matt cafe on the northwest corner of town on highway 99 all serve up tasty food to the people of Woodland and visitors passing through town. The Woodland bakery serves coffee, tea, sandwiches pastry. The friendly atmosphere is conducive to speculative conversation by patrons on what people are doing around town.

The Lewis River News, a weekly paper, is owned by Dick Pinkerton, editor. There have been several papers in Woodland. First, the Woodland News started in 1902, Mrs. Emma Wagner, editor. The second paper was the Woodland Echo which carried the news of Woodland during the teens of the twentieth century. Following the Echo, the Lewis River News has continued under various owners and management to the present capable owner who also produces a Woodland Shopper's Guide. Mr. Pinkerton has remodelled his building at Fourth and Davidson and built an attractive addition to the basic building. His editorials are thought provoking, he has increased circulation and as the voice of the people and as an increasingly valuable advertising medium, the Lewis River News is a credit to its owner and an asset to the community and its business climate.

In 1916 Whitlow and Tolbert hardware store just west of Grange Building started as a business later became the Miller Hardware. The same building has housed shoe shops, clothing stores and is now a meeting place for a church.

Mr. Whitlow, Stanley, Fields and E.E. Dale were some of the early real estate men of Woodland. Mr. Charles Dunham briefly sold real estate then opened a card room at the present site of the Woodland plumbing shop. During his youth Mr. Dunham was a foot racer and seldom lost a bet on a foot race in which he was a contestant. Today Abe J. Martin, Ira Fields and Amos Buker sell real estate in Woodland.

In 1920 the present Administration Building was a garage operated by Mr. Sheltus who operated here until the late twenties. The mid-twenties Harn Motor Co. started the Ford Motor Co. sales in this area being housed in the present building of F.M. Neil Motor Co. on north Goerig Avenue. The building is owned by the John Peterson estate.

In 1921 Greyhound buses started making regular daily stops in downtown Woodland. The bus depot variously called the Ingle Nook, the Nook and the Taffy Tavern was operated by Chrystle Robbins, now Mrs. Curly Schutz, Art Baker and brother John and others. The present site of Adams' Men's Wear was the location of this business.

During the twenties many well built homes were erected in Woodland. They were mostly story and a half bungalow construction which was as popular then as the ranch type house is today. Mr. Reisner was a prominent builder of that period. Charley Griffith built many sidewalks and concrete floors and foundations. He poured the concrete in the present Woodland Theater building. Charles Tanner, a young worker for Charley Griffith at that time, reminisces that the job of wheeling the concrete up the steep incline, one man pushing the wheel barrow and one pulling it with a rope from above was mighty tough work. Ed Griffith had a small dump truck and for years supplemented his farm income from money made with his truck. Harry Taylor gradually took over the dump truck hauling from his father-in-law, Ed, and still operated his own truck as a means of supplemental income. Harry Taylor also operated a Woodland Sand & Gravel business for ten years after 1946.

The twenties in Woodland was a time of many changes. New businesses came into being. The flow of traffic on highway 99 was increasing and new businesses started to cluster near this modern road in north Woodland. The present Walt Wood Hardware store stayed in the same business that changed hands several times. Mr. Patrician was followed by Roy Stewart as operators of this business.

The twenties saw highway 99 a challenge to many men to try out their increasingly powerful motor cars. L. N. Plamondon purchased a big, heavy Sterns Knight sedan with genuine glass all around. He let it be known that he had driven to Longview in the daring time of less than one half hour. R.W. Mills took up the challenge with his Hudson Super Six touring car which was over 19 feet long and able to hit close to 100 MPH. The trip that four other men made with him to Longview in something like twenty minutes must have been hair-raising. Mr. Mills, being a seafaring man of many years, steered his car as if he were at the helm of a ship at sea. The negotiation of the many sharp curves on that concrete road was occasionally a matter of two wheels on the ground and the other two under the four passengers leaning desperately inward to bring Mr. Mills' wheeled ship back on even keel.

Pete Lane and his gyrations in the Dodge Victory Six at that era are well remembered. On one trip Pete left the road going wide open, the car turned a complete somersault in the air and landed back on the ground after an eighty foot trip through air.

Five prominent business men of this era were returning from Longview to Woodland late one evening. They had attended a banquet which included liquid refreshments as well as a fine menu of food. Whether this was an indirect cause of what happened cannot be decided here. Anyway, on their southward journey to Woodland the driver seeing a train headlight approaching and mistaking it for an oncoming car continued due south where the highway turned east from its parallel course to the railroad tracks. The car proceeding at a rapid rate mowed down a state highway fence, several small trees and finally stopped near the bank of Burris creek. The ensuing hospital bills were paid but for years none of the car's occupants would care to discuss the evening. Perhaps, they were expressing a premature wish for the highway to be as it is today. Some pioneering?

The truck line of Johnson and Clemens hauled milk and goods to Portland, merchandise to Woodland. A milk strike found the Hillis Hill section of 99 spattered with milk by irate farmers. Apparently some thought the price received for their milk was enough, others did not. A packing plant for barrelling strawberries had a brief existence until the operator, name unknown, left with some of the receipts. The business of raising and selling lilacs of her own propagation by Mrs. Hulda Klager was a great attraction that annually drew thousands to view her gardens during blooming season.

Ray Schiewe and Fritz Grolbert were the plumbers of this era. W.L. Lawyer also, did some plumbing on the side. Later Carl Tesch took over as the Water Superintendent froom W.L. Lawyer and supplemented his income by serving as a plumber. One of the mamateur electricians of the twenties wired all the chairs in the garage office of Dale and Barr's garage and waited for the chairs to be filled by the usual loafers. A quick turn of a telephone crank which mechanism was hooked to the wires had an electrifying effect and the office ceased to be a gathering point for this group.

The businesses of this era had many headaches. Once a year on Halloween they branced for the storm. King Vnadal took over and kids from six to forty gave fifty or so volunteer policemen a rought time. The first of November saw wagons reassembled on top of buildings; out houses sitting in street intersections, noise and confusion all the preceeding night. One small building, which had Winston Churchill's initials on the door, was upended much to the vociferous dismay of its elderly occupant who was unfortunate enough to be within the scene of the misdemeanor. The occasional visit of Bypsies to Woodland was a harrowing experience because of their accquisitive habits while in a store. Robberies were not infrequent. On one occasion the night marshall, known generally as two-gun Hull because he carried five guns, two on his person and three in the car, suprised two men breaking into the Harn Motor Co. building. Mr. Hull who had more guns than courage started shooting but he was so nervous he finished his sixth shot with the gun pointing straight up. The building was marked all the way to the top by his kerbanging six shooter. The Fourth of July saw the usual noise surreptitiously aided and abetted by some of the men who most strongly advocated a no-fireworks law.

During this period of prohibition the Indians bought lemon extract 60% alcohol from Woodland merchants by the case. The merchants who sold this potential fire water to them must have rationalized their conscience by visualizing the thousands of cakes and puggins the few Indians were consuming each week.

Sunday closing of most business has always been a majority decision of Woodland's business. During these early years operating from 7:30 a.m. to 9 or 10 p.m., 6 days a week gave a business man a need for God's day and this never was seriously challenged.

During the thirties Woodland business was benefited by the Ariel Dam construction. The W.P.A., P.W.A. and other government emergency programs provided the people with money to pay bills. Business was slow and some folded: either stopped or went through the disheartening process of bankruptcy. The late thirties saw the channel of the Lewis River changed forming Horseshoe Lake. Woodland thereby lostits status as a port and gained a lake which at times had a four letter word for its name. Efforts continue by the Woodland Chamber of Commerce and city government to make this body of water an attractive asset to the community.

From 1934-38 the Safeway store chain operated a store at the locatin of Knight's Grocery. The people of Woodland apparently distrusted this representative of big business and were loyal to the local merchants. The main street of Woodland and its business is the favorite hunting ground for every cause, good, bad or indifferent. The merchants continue to shell out in a proportion which is still out of balance with the conscience of the community.

From 1941-46 the war years put many of Woodland's business men in uniform. The annual Planter's Day was discontinued and everyone put his shoulder to the wheel. Rationing guaranteed the merchant a profit but also pulled in belt lines. Service stations and garages operated on a slow bell. No new cars, tires, gas sale severly restricted. Sugar and cigarettes much more demand than supply.

1946 saw people with bulging savings accounts and just as big a bump of caution or "wait and see if prices go down" attitude. In 1947 the flood gates of money started to open and money was flowing out of war bonds into houses, farms, cars, and equipment. The demand far exceeded the supply in most items. Many new businesses started in Woodland;' new buildings rose. Highway 99 was paved through North Woodland four lane at the intersection of Goerig Avenue.

In 1948 the great inundation destroyed much property and put many farms on a long term pay out recovery loan basis with Uncle Sam. Ed treik's Woodland Lumber Co. business finally folded as a direct loss of business due to the flood of Memorial Day of this year. The United Bulb Co. lost several hundred thousand dollars worth of their beauty crop. Another similar business folded and left the area. Some of the dairy farmers fought back and are once more emerging as an important segment ofthe area's economy.

The resurgence of the "after the way years" brought many new faces to the construction industry in Woodland. Mills Bros. Concrete construction started as Murk and Mills in 1946 specialized in all types of monolithic concrete work. Jun 1946 they poured the walls of the Lewis River Motor Co. building at Dale and Washington streets. Later the same year the floors. Mills Bros. employed local men poured innumerable house foundations, concrete floors including work on 16 service stations in Woodland. William and Roland Mills, both native of Woodland, sold their property to Ben Thomas in the middle fifties and discontinued their business. The reason stated was construction here had slowed to a trickle. The Woodland truck line owned now for many years by Lennie Boys contiues to be a good place toget your things hauled. At the present time Dwight Larsen of Lacenter and Bob nevil of Woodland domost of the building in the community.

Copeland Lumber Co. continues tosupply the community needs in Woodland for building supplies. Dan Hogan, Ed Treick were former Copeland managers here. Likeable Bill Franklin just recently transferred to a Portland yard is succeeded by Mr. Mitchell at Copeland.

Woodland also has several competently operated garage and repair shoops besides those already mentioned. Al Schurman Garage on north Goerig, Herb Conklin's repair shop, Ralph Knight T.V. and electrical work and of course, Clyde Schurman and Schurman's Machine Works all of north Woodland are businesses of long standing in the town.

The Washington Co-op started in business in 1927 and is a going concern today. The large building where eggs, seed, feed, etc. are bought and sold is located on Davidson Avenue next to the railroad building. Two oil company consignees, L.R. Chester Union Oil Co. and Marcus Deans, Shell Oil Co., are located next tothe railroad with siding access for bulk petroleum porducts delivery.

There are two packing plants in Woodland. Mr Setere who operated the Lewis River Meat Co. at the new east city limits has been serving people of the community for many years in his business. Mr. Pachal, an old time resident of Woodland, continues to operate the City Meaat Market and is one of the owners of the other packing plant.

Wal's Auto, Church Electric, Bruenn's T.V. and Applieance, Oleson's Variety, Al Schiewe's Shoe Shop, the ultra modern Hobby Shop operated by Chrystle and Curly Schultz, are some of the businesses of many years service in the community.

The Woodland Bakery, operated by Lowell Morgan and family, has been a going concern for many years. The Blout family operated before Lowell stepped into the picture. Mr. Morgan has baked his way into the dining room of almost every home in Woodland. His isthe kind of business that is good business for the town.

Woodland has been fortunate in the men who have seen fit to settle here and serve as doctors and dentists. During the early days, Dr. Lorgacre and Cr.Chapman, then the eminennt and beloved Dr. Hoffmann have served faithfully. Dr. Gorton is now in Woodland to assist in placating the aches and ills of the people. Dr. MacArthur was associated with Dr. Hoffmann during the thirties.

The profession of dentristry has been followed by such men as Mr. Andrews during and after the first World War, then Dr. Wilson and formany years Dr. L.V. Swartfollowed by Dr. husted ad Dr. Gilbert who operated the same office once operated by Dr. Swart.

Dr. Swart, a wonderful athlete in his high school days who broad jumped over 24' and ran the 100 yard dash in less than ten seconds while still a student of Woodland High School, later became instrumental in gettig Horseshoe Lake declared a federal refuge for wild fowl. Horseshoe Lake, which is stocked annually with trout, the north fork of the Lewis River which annually has a large run of Chinook, Silver and Jack salmon as well as harvest trout weighing upto three pounds, makes this area a fisherman's paradise. Merwin Dam Lake, Yale Dam Lake and many other lakes in this area provide fine seasonal fishing. The sloughs in the bottomland and at nearby Ridgefield provide excellent catches of catfish and bass. Wild fowl are plentiful and the areas east, north and northwest of Woodland providethe game animals of deer and elk.

The background of sporting meas that an important segment ofbusiness issporting goods, fishing gear, guns, etc. Walt Wood Hardware and Johnny Youngman's are the two most prominent in this business. Youngman also carries a lie of boats, outboard motors, etc.

The Security State Bak was opened at the southeast corner of Davidson and Third streets by Carl Button during the mid-thirties. Through careful guidance of Carl, later assisted by his son, W.C. Button, the bank has prospered. One bank robber did not take account Carl Button's accuracy and while fleeing with loot from the bank was brought cown by one well placed shop from Carl's gun. Since that timeno bank holdups have been attempted here. The continued growth of the Security State Bank prompted Mr. Button toinvest in a new building. He previously had purchased the old twostory building which had housed a store and which was located atthenorthwest corner ofDavidson and Park streets. The building was purchased from R.W. Mills and when it was razed aother oldbusiness landmark had been removed fromthe main street of town. About 1950 the present beautifulstructure was erected by Quoidback, a Longview contractor. Mr.W.C. Button, or better known as Woody, for years was the main helmsman who steered the activities of the bank into the proper promotional channnels ofhomebuilding, business expansion, loans and car purchase loans ofWoodlan'd people and businessmen. Woody recently opened the Bank of Cowlitz County in Longview and now Walt Gregorius is one of the mainstays of the banking business in Woodland. Sincethe prosperity of the Woodland business field is closely connected with the care and acumen of the local bank plus its genuine interest in a solid business growth, the local bank is, perhaps, the most important single business of the town.

1958 shows a total of116 business licenses sold by city government. Almost all businesses are woner operated, are modern in their approach to the shopping needs of Woodlan's citizens and hold forth here for perhapsmany of the same reasons as their predecessors of 3/4's of a century. The Lewis River valley is still beautifulto behold. The town of Woodland is situated like a flower on a stem at the terminus of this valley into the broad lower reaches of the Columbia River valley which reaches to the Pacific some seventy miles northwest. The modern super highway which bisects the town is a four lane automotive access to areas north and south for commerce, pleasure and ease of commuting.

Article submitted by Roland Mills, including quote from Donald McIntosh.

WOODLAND POST OFFICE

As far as can be ascertained, C.C. Bozarth was the first postmaster Woodland ever had (1882-1890). Sam Conrad was postmaster from 1890 to 1893 and C.C. Bozarth again from 1893-1897.

In 1897 Isaac Fields had the misfortune to lose his right arm in a pile-driver accident at Astoria, Oregon. As the contract was a Government sub-let contract, there was no Government assistance. The contractor paid the hospital expenses and Mr. Fields arrived home, a cripple for life.

Columbus Klady who was scheduled to be the next Postmaster for Woodland, stepped aside and helped Mr. Fields secure the position. Isaac Fields started the Post Office in a small frame building on the corner of 2nd and Davidson Ave., right where Walt Hansen's Union Gas Station is located. In addition to the Post Office, he carried some groceries and notions.

In 1905 Isaac Fields built a new post office on the opposite corner (where Knight's Grocery is now located). The stock of groceries and notions were closed out when he left his former location. Along side of the new post office there was a fence with a wide board on top, where the people would gather from about 8 a.m. until about 11 a.m. and discuss the news topics of the day. Quite often there were some pretty warm political arguments. Rain or shine--the people would gather there every morning. Frank Fields, a brother of Isaac was a painter at that time, also sang in the choir of the Christian Church. Isaac Fields was a Republican and held the office for 17 years.

In 1914 his wife, Lutetia Fields was appointed Postmaster, she being a Democrat. Being a daughter of Dave Ross, who was also a Democrat. Mrs. Fields was Postmaster for a period of 9 years, her term expired in 1923.

Ira S. Fields, her son, being a Republican, was appointed Postmaster in 1923 and served for twelve years, his term expired in June 1935. In 1930 Ira Fields built the new Post Office Building, in which the Knight's Grocery and Bruens' Electrical Appliance, are also located. The old Post Office was moved to the rear of the new building, now occupied by Mr. Knight as a warehouse.

Isaac Fields was born in Pennsylvania and later the Fields family moved to Illinois. Mrs. Lutetia Ross Fields was born in the Lewis River Valley as was her son Ira. There was another son, James D. Fields, who was a druggist and had a store in Everett, Washington. He passed away in 1950. Isaac Fields died in 1927 and his wife Lutetia died in 1936. Ira Fields is one of the very few ex-Postmasters of Woodland still living.

Submitted by Ira S. Fields - January 22, 1958

 

LEWIS RIVER POST OFFICES
Listed Chronologically

The first Post Office in the Lewis River community was at Pekin established April 29, 1854. Jefferson Huff was postmaster. The succeeding Postmasters with date of appointment were: William Ginder, August 27, 1861; William Bratton, Sr., May 22, 1863; Gustave Greve, May 16, 1866; Patrick Quinn, January 12, 1869; F.H. Marsh, January 17, 1872; F. LeLewis, August 4, 1873; John W. Caples, May 11, 1874; Charles Miller, April 3, 1876; Andrew F. Millard, August 9, 1876; Thomas S. Colvin, May 22, 1877; C.C. Byuth, July 29, 1877; Christopher C. Bozarth, September 7, 1877; Melissa L. Taylor, February 28, 1882; Laurence V. Maxwell, May 24, 1882; J.A. McElhany, March 2, 1883; James A. Rosenfeld, February 5, 1884; the Post Office discontinued November 11, 1886.Martins Bluff Post Office was established October 14, 1868 and discontinued November 16, 1868; re-established December 17, 1868, discontinued May 19, 1879; re-established July 22, 1905 and discontinued August 31, 1916.

Hayes Post Office was established October 9, 1876 and discontinued February 28, 1913. Postmasters were: Daniel W. Gardner, Edward E. Gardner, Mary W. Wright, D. Wells Gardner, Susan Griffith, Cornelius Robertson, Axel Vester, Miles G. Root and Eustace B. Scott.

Kerns was established as Woodland May 8, 1882. It's name was changed to Kerns, October 20, 1890. The office was discontinued May 31, 1906. Postmasters were: Christopher C. Bozarth, March 8, 1882; Adolphus LeLewis, February 12, 1890; Eugene S. Wright, November 28, 1896; Clair P. Harter, February 12, 1898 and Irene Robinson, July 5, 1902.

Woodland Post Office was established April, 1882 with C.C. Bozarth as Postmaster. Sam Conrad was made Postmaster November 25, 1890; C.C. Bozarth, May 12, 1893; Isaac Fields, August 27, 1897; Lutetia Fields, February 11, 1914; Ira S. Fields, February 24, 1923; Royce Mitchell, John Mills, 1935; Ed Triek, temporary Postmaster. The Postmaster as of 1958 is Paul Carey.

The Etna Post Office was established July 1882, James Forbes was Postmaster. Later Shell Anrys was Postmaster. It was probably discontinued at the same time as the Hayes Post Office, in 1913.

The Caples Post Office was established February 4, 1890, Joseph Wright Postmaster. H. Caples was made Postmaster October 14, 1892. Discontinued December 12, 1909.

Yale Post Office established August 3, 1898, Mary C. Smith Postmaster. Anna Griffith made Postmaster October 1904. Keith Slayter made Postmaster February 1, 1940. The name was changed to Cougar August 1, 1941.

Reno established December 9, 1912, Effie E. Axtel Postmaster. Gertrude F. Kent made Postmaster February 2, 1914.

Cougar was established May 6, 1918, Amanda Robbins Postmaster. Discontinued August 15, 1936. Mrs. Alice Schiewi was made Postmaster April 1, 1942. Paul Saxton was Postmaster October 9, 1944. Mrs. Ethel Robbins April 19, 1945 and is still Postmaster. (1958).

Ariel was established January 22, 1931, Mrs. Robin A. Runyan . Walter H. Correll was made Postmaster February 5, 1945, Geneva Wilson was Postmaster October 1, 1947. Mrs. Geneva Heryford, named changed by marriage from Geneva Wilson is the present Postmaster (1958).

All the above information was obtained from the National Archives Washington, D.C. Carl Landerholm, Clark County Historian says there was a Post Office called Lewis River. If so it was very early. Will Forbes, son of the Etna Postmaster says there was a Post Office called Hall above Etna.

 

TELEPHONE SERVICE IN WOODLAND

There was some sort of telephone service in Woodland prior to 1906, of which we have no record. In 1906 the Lewis river Independent Telephone Company was organized and took over the system. In March 1907, a 50-year franchise was granted by the city of Woodland. In October 1927, the property was bought by the Coos-Curry Telephone Company.

In November 1927, an appraisal of the property showed: A one-position, common battery, Western Electric Switchboard; about 3300 feet of 25 pair and 50 pair aerial cable; 65 miles of aerial wire; 55 poles; 134 telephone stations; plus office furniture, fixtures, tools, garage equipment, etc. Shortly thereafter, in April 1928, it was sold to West Coast Telephone Company. At that time there were about 200 telephones in Woodland exchange. In 1955, there were about 740 stations, dial automatic switching was installed. At the end of 1957 there were 825 stations.

The Woodland telephone system has been troubled by flood conditions on many occasions. The worst in recent years was in May 1948, about the same time that the city of Vanport, Oregon was wiped out by a break in the Columbia River dam. Practically the entire city of Woodland was flooded and there was 18 inches of water in the telephone office. A West Coast Telephone Company crew headed by S.O. Sissons moved the switchboard to an upstairs location in the Security State Bank Building, adjacent to our offices. The move was effected without interruption of service. Operators and repairmen traveled to and from by row boat.

TELEPHONES

The late Fred Bryant was the first wire chief. Next, Scott Clawson was wire chief about 1939, and Eldon Robinson served as assistant to him about two years. (He started in December 1938 and worked until 1940).

In May 1942 the telephone office was moved from the location where Amos Buker has his second hand furniture store in the office next to the old bank building. The West Coast Telephone Co. maintained an office there until conversion to dial system on May 21, 1955.

The first telephone was installed in Hoff Hotel, later known as Martin Hotel, then Calvin Hotel and now owned by the Woodland Grange and used for a club house.

A Telephone Company, known as the Sunset Co. and later the Pacific Co., had a direct line from Seattle to San Francisco (with a huge pole placed at Pekin Ferry south of Woodland to carry the line across the Lewis River). Amos Buker came to Kelso in 1897 and was lineman through this area until 1902, later Allen Churchill, then Henry Duff, and Nick Buker (brother to Amos) coming from Kalama, were linemen in that order. A switchboard was placed in Bryant's Drug Store in 1907; then Fred Bryant, brother of Earl Bryant, became first resident lineman.

Some interesting tales are told about the telephone service in early days when there was only the one telephone in town, which handled long distance calls only. Messages had to be delivered by foot or horseback and, as Mayor Bryant recalls, everyone along the way "heard the news" before the party to whom the message was being sent heard it. If the party calling wished to talk to the party being called, then the messenger would leave the message and the other party had to walk or ride horseback back to the hotel. One such incident is told by Gilbert Murk. He and Charley Schwartz ran a livery stable where the Meeker Feed Co. is now located. Gilbert's father and Squire Bozarth owned some pigs and Gilbert was sent to Kalama in 1896 with a load to sell. The buyer refused to pay the price previously agreed on so Gill called Squire Bozarth from Kalama and he had to wait until someone from the hotel went to get Squire Bozarth, who was living where Fox Oleson is now living. Gilbert told Squire that the buyer said he had to take the money he offered, which was lower than the agreed price, or take the pigs back to Woodland. So Squire said he better take the money, but it turned out that the swindler became confused in the transaction and when Gill got back to Woodland his father found out that he actually had been paid $6.00 over the original price set. Gill's father allowed him to keep the money as the swindler never showed up to claim it; so he felt he had been well repaid for all his trouble.

Anyone who happened to be at the hotel when a message came in was sent out with the call. Dora Clauson was at the hotel when a call came in for Ed Goerig, telling him that his son Joe had been born. Dora was asked to take the message to him on the Caples Road to the place known as the Bill Goerig place (where Mr. Binn now lives). When she got as far as her place, where the Bauers now live, her mother decided she could take the message faster by horseback so went on to the Goerig place instead of Dora.

Gussie Johnson (wife of the late Carl Johnson) was the first switchboard operator. Later the switchboard was at Tom Stratton Drug Store for a number of years and then moved to the spot where the barber shop now stands. Harry Andrews mother worked there and he recalls that it sometimes took an hour to get a call through as his mother just had to keep cranking until the other party would answer.

Others began to feel the need of telephones as Gill Murk told Charley Schwartz, they "had better get a phone, as Bill Martin was getting all the trade". As each had a phone installed they acquired stock and the Woodland-Hayes Telephone Co. was formed with mutual ownership. Three lines were installed with circuits to Hayes, Etna and Cedar Creek. It was "the old party line" when they would call a number of people on their own lines and all talk on the one circuit. Anyone on a different line had to be reached through the switchboard.

A Mr. Forney bought the farmers out and later Ira Fields took over until he sold to the present West Coast Telephone Co.

The Lewis River Independent Telephone Co., was purchased from R.H. Forney by Ira S. Fields in 1923. It previously had been owned by various stock holders of the Lewis River Valley until Mr. Forney purchased their stock. Fred Bryant was the trouble-shooter for Mr. Fields. Fred also helped Mr. Fields in the Post Office, as the two jobs just about kept one man busy. Mrs. Fields was the Chief-Operator and also collected electric bills for the Northwest Electric Company.

Mr. and Mrs. Fields sold the Telephone Company, in 1927 to the Coos-Curry Telephone Company, which in turn was sold to the West Coast Telephone Company, being the present owners.

 

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